The Bandarban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) is established in 2 rural unions namely Kuhalong and Rajbila in north of Bandarban Sadar sub district of Bandarban district. The area is known to be endemic for malaria primarily due to Plasmodium falciparum. Bandarban. The total Bandarban district area is 4,479 km² and the population 292,900, which is situated at the south- east region of Bangladesh, one of the three hill districts of Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh. It’s geographical coordinates are 22.20 ° N and 92.35° E. It is not only the remotest district of the country, but also is the least populated one. The Bandarban HDSS area is close to the border with Myanmar.