Magu HDSS is one of the research components of the Kisesa Open Cohort Study implemented in Kisesa ward Magu District. Since 1994 an observational HIV cohort study has been conducted in Kisesa Ward. This is the second oldest HIV community cohort study in Africa and the only one in Tanzania. The cohort study involves five major research activities: a Demographic Surveillance System [DSS]1 (responsible for population monitoring); Epidemiological serosurveys (for HIV and sexual behaviour monitoring); antenatal clinic surveillance (Syphilis and HIV monitoring); monitoring of VCT, referrals and uptake of ART and focused qualitative studies (looking at stigma, community perception of ARVs and ART adherence). By the end of 2010, twenty five rounds of DSS had been carried out and six rounds of Epidemiological Sero-Surveys and four rounds of antenatal Clinic Surveillance. The VCT and ART monitoring systems have been in place since 2006. In addition, four qualitative studies were carried out during the period 2005-2010. The qualitative studies addressed four themes; stigma, perception of access to ARVs, Adherence to ART and role of faith leaders in community perception about ARVs.