The Ifakara HDSS area is located in southern Tanzania in parts of two districts, Kilombero and Ulanga both in Morogoro region. Cover a total of 25 villages in rural area of Ulanga nd Kilombero districts, with a population of about 124,000 people in 28,000 households. In June 2007 the surveillance area was extended to include five villages of Ifakara Town. This makes a total 30 villages with a population of 168,000 in 38,000 households under health surveillance. All are in the flood plain of the Kilombero River. Priority research areas include malaria, burden of disease, health and poverty, effectiveness of malaria control tools, HIV/AIDS and TB, non-communicable diseases, maternal and newborn health and health systems.